Several sources indicate that Saudi nationals of African descent are subject to racial discrimination (Professor 13 Jan. 2014; CDHR 9 Jan. 2014; IGA 10 Jan. 2014). According to the IGA Director, they experience discrimination in all areas and are viewed as "inferior" (10 Jan. 2014). In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, the Executive Director of the Center for Democracy and Human Rights in Saudi Arabia (CDHR), a Washington-based NGO advocating for democratic reforms in Saudi Arabia (n.d.), stated that black Saudis experience discrimination in employment and education (9 Jan. 2014). Likewise, the IGA Director said that black Saudis have fewer employment and education opportunities (10 Jan. 2014). Several sources indicate that there are few black Saudis in leadership positions (CDHR 9 Jan. 2014; IGA 10 Jan. 2014; Professor 13 Jan. 2014). According to the IGA Director, there are no black Saudi TV presenters, university deans, judges, senior government officials or diplomats (10 Jan. 2014). The CDHR Executive Director noted that there are "few, if any, black Saudis in high ranking positions in the government, school administration, universities or judiciary" (9 Jan. 2014). According to the IGA Director, "most black Saudi citizens have marginalized positions in society" (10 Jan. 2014). The UVM Professor similarly said that black Saudi nationals "generally fall into a lower socio-economic group" (13 Jan. 2014).