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This is for people who are having a hard time understanding why this proves fraud.

Suppose you work at a restaurant. You suspect the owner is stealing your tips.

What this graph shows is how much each table with a given number of customers is tipping compared to the expected tip percentage of a table of that size. The blue dots are tables. The X axis is the size of the table in customers. The Y axis is the difference between their tip and the expected tip. The red line represents the expected tip percentage a table at that spot along the X axis.

Imagine a table of two on average tips 22%. If a table of two people comes in and tips 20%, their blue dot will be at 2 on the X axis and -2% on the Y axis. If they tip only 18% their blue dot will be below the red line at -2% on the Y axis. Imagine a table of ten on average tips 17%. If a table of ten comes in and tips 20%, their blue dot will be at 10 on the X axis and +3% on the Y axis.

As you can see, the larger the tables the lower the tip percentage. What you should see is a even distribution between good tips and bad tips, regardless of the table size. This chart would show that someone is stealing the tips from the larger tables.

>notes

The X axis in Shiva's work is the ratio of R **Party line votes*** to D ***party line votes****. It is not the percentage of registered republicans (MI has no party reg). It is not the ratio of republican votes to total votes. The R party line vote is different from a vote for Trump.

How to plot on Shiva's graph example:

100 party line votes 60R 40D = 60%R = blue dot at 60 on X axis

100 individual votes 50Trump 50Biden = 50%. 50-60=-10

Blue dot at 60 on X axis and -10% on Y axis.

Suppose you work at a restaurant. You suspect the owner is stealing your tips.

What this graph shows is how much each table with a given number of customers is tipping compared to the expected tip percentage of a table of that size. The blue dots are tables. The X axis is the size of the table in customers. The Y axis is the difference between their tip and the expected tip. The red line represents the expected tip percentage a table at that spot along the X axis.

Imagine a table of two on average tips 22%. If a table of two people comes in and tips 20%, their blue dot will be at 2 on the X axis and -2% on the Y axis. If they tip only 18% their blue dot will be below the red line at -2% on the Y axis. Imagine a table of ten on average tips 17%. If a table of ten comes in and tips 20%, their blue dot will be at 10 on the X axis and +3% on the Y axis.

As you can see, the larger the tables the lower the tip percentage. What you should see is a even distribution between good tips and bad tips, regardless of the table size. This chart would show that someone is stealing the tips from the larger tables.

>notes

The X axis in Shiva's work is the ratio of R **Party line votes*** to D ***party line votes****. It is not the percentage of registered republicans (MI has no party reg). It is not the ratio of republican votes to total votes. The R party line vote is different from a vote for Trump.

How to plot on Shiva's graph example:

100 party line votes 60R 40D = 60%R = blue dot at 60 on X axis

100 individual votes 50Trump 50Biden = 50%. 50-60=-10

Blue dot at 60 on X axis and -10% on Y axis.